Metamorphosis

metamorphosis

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See meta- , -morph , -osis. Related Words for metamorphosis rebirth , evolution , transfiguration , alteration , transubstantiation , transmogrification , change , translation , changeover , transmutation , mutation.

Jacob Bernstein October 14, What Happened to the Real Lou? Lloyd Grove August 5, Historical Examples of metamorphosis How to explain the metamorphosis seemed for a time a mystery.

The Clyde Mystery Andrew Lang. A marked change in appearance, character, condition, or function. Metamorphosis includes, in insects, the transformation of a maggot into an adult fly and a caterpillar into a butterfly and, in amphibians, the changing of a tadpole into a frog.

A usually degenerative pathological change in the structure of a particular body tissue. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Dramatic change in the form and often the habits of an animal during its development after birth or hatching.

He begins climbing the walls and ceiling for amusement. Discovering Gregor's new pastime, Grete decides to remove some of the furniture to give Gregor more space.

She and her mother begin taking furniture away, but Gregor finds their actions deeply distressing. He tries to save a picture on the wall of a woman wearing a fur hat, fur scarf, and fur muff.

Gregor's mother sees him hanging on the wall and passes out. Grete angrily calls out to Gregor—the first time anyone has spoken directly to him since his transformation.

Gregor runs out of the room and into the kitchen. He encounters his father, who has just returned home from work. The father throws apples at Gregor, and one of them sinks into a sensitive spot in his back and remains lodged there, paralyzing his movements for a month and damaging him permanently.

Gregor manages to get back into his bedroom but is severely injured. One evening, the cleaning lady leaves Gregor's door open while three lodgers, whom the family has taken on for additional income, lounge about the living room.

Grete has been asked to play the violin for them, and Gregor—who usually takes care to avoid crossing paths with anyone in the flat—creeps out of his bedroom to listen in the midst of his depression and resultant detachment.

The lodgers, who initially seemed interested in Grete, grow bored with her performance, but Gregor is transfixed by it. One of the lodgers spots Gregor, and the rest become alarmed.

Gregor's father tries to shove the lodgers back into their rooms, but the three men protest and announce that they will move out immediately without paying rent because of the disgusting conditions in the apartment.

Grete, who has by now become tired of taking care of Gregor and is realizing the burden his existence puts on each one in the family, tells her parents they must get rid of Gregor, or they will all be ruined.

Her father agrees, wishing Gregor could understand them and would leave of his own accord. Gregor does, in fact, understand and slowly moves back to the bedroom.

There, determined to rid his family of his presence, Gregor dies, though it is not clear whether the cause of his death was suicide or natural causes.

Upon discovering Gregor is dead, the family feels a great sense of relief. The father kicks out the boarders and decides to fire the cleaning lady, who has disposed of Gregor's body.

The family takes a trolley ride out to the countryside, during which they consider their finances. They decide to move to a smaller apartment to further save money, an act they were unable to carry out in Gregor's presence.

During this short trip, Mr. Samsa realize that, in spite of going through hardships which have brought an amount of paleness to her face, Grete appears to have grown up into a pretty and well-figured lady, which leads her parents to think about finding her a husband.

Gregor is the main character of the story. He works as a traveling salesman in order to provide money for his sister and parents.

He wakes up one morning finding himself transformed into an insect. After the metamorphosis, Gregor becomes unable to work and is confined to his room for most of the remainder of the story.

This prompts his family to begin working once again. Gregor is depicted as isolated from society and often misunderstands the true intentions of others.

The name "Gregor Samsa" appears to derive partly from literary works Kafka had read. Sacher-Masoch wrote Venus in Furs , a novel whose hero assumes the name Gregor at one point.

A "Venus in furs" literally recurs in The Metamorphosis in the picture that Gregor Samsa has hung on his bedroom wall. Grete is Gregor's younger sister, who becomes his caretaker after his metamorphosis.

Initially Grete and Gregor have a close relationship, but this quickly fades. While Grete initially volunteers to feed him and clean his room, she grows increasingly impatient with the burden and begins to leave his room in disarray out of spite.

Her initial decision to take care of Gregor may have come from a desire to contribute and be useful to the family, since she becomes angry and upset when the mother cleans his room, and it is made clear that Grete is disgusted by Gregor; she could not enter Gregor's room without opening the window first because of the nausea he caused her, and leaves without doing anything if Gregor is in plain sight.

She plays the violin and dreams of going to the conservatory, a dream Gregor had intended to make happen; Gregor had planned on making the announcement on Christmas Day.

To help provide an income for the family after Gregor's transformation, she starts working as a salesgirl. Grete is also the first to suggest getting rid of Gregor, which causes Gregor to plan his own death.

At the end of the story, Grete's parents realize that she has become beautiful and full-figured and decide to consider finding her a husband.

Samsa is Gregor's father. After the metamorphosis, he is forced to return to work in order to support the family financially. His attitude towards his son is harsh; he regards the transformed Gregor with disgust and possibly even fear, and he attacks him on multiple occasions.

Samsa is Grete and Gregor's mother. She is initially shocked at Gregor's transformation; however, she wants to enter his room. This proves too much for her, thus giving rise to a conflict between her maternal impulse and sympathy, and her fear and revulsion at Gregor's new form.

The Charwoman is an old lady who is employed by the Samsa family to help take care of their household duties. Apart from Grete and her father, she is the only person who is in close contact with Gregor.

She is the one who notices that Gregor had died and disposes of his body. Like most Kafka works, The Metamorphosis tends to entail the use of a religious Max Brod or psychological interpretation by most of its interpreters.

A Study of Franz Kafka Besides the psychological approach, interpretations focusing on sociological aspects which see the Samsa family as a portrayal of general social circumstances, have gained a large following as well.

He instead chose an interpretation guided by the artistic detail but categorically excluded any and all attempts at deciphering a symbolical or allegorical level of meaning.

Arguing against the popular father complex theory, he observed that it is the sister, more so than the father, who should be considered the cruelest person in the story, as she is the one backstabbing Gregor.

Gegensatz und Einheitlichkeit, Stil und Dargestelltes, Darstellung und Fabel sind in vollkommener Weise ineinander verwoben.

In , Nina Pelikan Straus wrote a feminist interpretation of Metamorphosis, bringing to the forefront the transformation of the main character Gregor's sister, Grete, and foregrounding the family and, particularly, younger sister's transformation in the story.

Traditionally, critics of Metamorphosis have underplayed the fact that the story is not only about Gregor but also his family and especially, Grete's metamorphosis as it is mainly Grete, woman, daughter, sister, on whom the social and psychoanalytic resonances of the text depend.

It is made up of one passive, rather austere person and another active, more libidinal person. They also appear in The Judgement Georg and his friend in Russia , in all three of his novels e.

Robinson and Delamarche in Amerika as well as in his short stories A Country Doctor the country doctor and the groom and A Hunger Artist the hunger artist and the panther.

Reiner Stach argued in that no elucidating comments were needed to illustrate the story and that it was convincing by itself, self-contained, even absolute.

He believes that there is no doubt the story would have been admitted to the canon of world literature even if we had known nothing about its author.

Reduced to carrying out his professional responsibilities, anxious to guarantee his advancement and vexed with the fear of making commercial mistakes, he is the creature of a functionalistic professional life.

In , Ralf Sudau took the view that particular attention should be paid to the motifs of self-abnegation and disregard for reality.

Beicken, Sokel, Sautermeister and Schwarz. According to them, the narrative is a metaphor for the suffering resulting from leprosy, an escape into the disease or a symptom onset, an image of an existence which is defaced by the career, or a revealing staging which cracks the veneer and superficiality of everyday circumstances and exposes its cruel essence.

He also points to the grotesque and tragicomical, silent film-like elements. Fernando Bermejo-Rubio argued that the story is often viewed unjustly as inconclusive.

He derives his interpretative approach from the fact that the descriptions of Gregor and his family environment in The Metamorphosis contradict each other.

Bermejo-Rubio emphasizes that Kafka ordered in that there should be no illustration of Gregor.

Another reason why Kafka opposed such an illustration is that the reader should not be biased in any way before his reading process was getting under way.

That the descriptions are not compatible with each other is indicative of the fact that the opening statement is not to be trusted.

Volker Drüke believes that the crucial metamorphosis in the story is that of Grete. She is the character the title is directed at.

Grete, by contrast, has matured as a result of the new family circumstances and assumed responsibility. Kafka's sentences often deliver an unexpected impact just before the period — that being the finalizing meaning and focus.

This is achieved from the construction of sentences in the original German, where the verbs of subordinate clauses are put at the end.

For example, in the opening sentence, it is the final word, verwandelt , that indicates transformation:. Als Gregor Samsa eines Morgens aus unruhigen Träumen erwachte, fand er sich in seinem Bett zu einem ungeheuren Ungeziefer verwandelt.

As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect-like creature. These constructions are not directly replicable in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the effect of the original text.

English translators have often sought to render the word Ungeziefer as "insect", but this is not strictly accurate.

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Aura Da Prophet - Metamorphosis Ft. AK The Savior (Official Lyric Video) Synonyms for metamorphosis Synonyms changeoverconversiontransfigurationtransformation Visit the Thesaurus for More. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. During this short trip, Mr. Keep Exploring Britannica Dinosaur. He adds that Gregor's recent performance has been unsatisfactory. The size and morphological differences between nymphs in different instars are small, often just differences in body proportions and the champions league borussia mönchengladbach live of segments; in later instars, external wing buds form. Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. New York, New York: More About Metamorphosis 19 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference Bfcdynamo animal development: In the movie "The Producers" Max Bialystock and Leo Bloom are searching for the worst play ever written in metamorphosis to progress their scam. Hakimitoday Czech Republic.

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Because development is not the same in all insects, it is convenient to group them into major categories according to the pattern of structural changes: In ametabolous development there is simply a gradual increase in the size of young until adult dimensions are attained.

This kind of development occurs in the silverfish , springtail, and other primitive insects. In more advanced insects e.

The hemimetabolous life cycle consists of egg, nymph , and adult. The nymph, or immature insect , resembles the adult in form and eating habits, differing in size, body proportions, and colour pattern.

Rudimentary wings are visible and develop externally. Development is gradual through a series of molts periodic shedding of the outer skeleton , the adult emerging from the final molt.

Complete, or holometabolous , metamorphosis is characteristic of beetles, butterflies and moths, flies, and wasps. Their life cycle includes four stages: The larva differs greatly from the adult.

It is wingless, and its form and habits are suited for growth and development rather than reproduction. The change to the adult occurs during the inactive, nonfeeding pupal stage.

At this time the larva undergoes a transformation in which the wings appear externally, larval organs and tissues are broken down, and adult structures are developed.

Hypermetamorphosis , a form of complete metamorphosis, occurs in some beetles, flies, and other insects and is characterized by a series of larval stages.

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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Read More on This Topic. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Traditionally, critics of Metamorphosis have underplayed the fact that the story is not only about Gregor but also his family and especially, Grete's metamorphosis as it is mainly Grete, woman, daughter, sister, on whom the social and psychoanalytic resonances of the text depend.

It is made up of one passive, rather austere person and another active, more libidinal person. They also appear in The Judgement Georg and his friend in Russia , in all three of his novels e.

Robinson and Delamarche in Amerika as well as in his short stories A Country Doctor the country doctor and the groom and A Hunger Artist the hunger artist and the panther.

Reiner Stach argued in that no elucidating comments were needed to illustrate the story and that it was convincing by itself, self-contained, even absolute.

He believes that there is no doubt the story would have been admitted to the canon of world literature even if we had known nothing about its author.

Reduced to carrying out his professional responsibilities, anxious to guarantee his advancement and vexed with the fear of making commercial mistakes, he is the creature of a functionalistic professional life.

In , Ralf Sudau took the view that particular attention should be paid to the motifs of self-abnegation and disregard for reality.

Beicken, Sokel, Sautermeister and Schwarz. According to them, the narrative is a metaphor for the suffering resulting from leprosy, an escape into the disease or a symptom onset, an image of an existence which is defaced by the career, or a revealing staging which cracks the veneer and superficiality of everyday circumstances and exposes its cruel essence.

He also points to the grotesque and tragicomical, silent film-like elements. Fernando Bermejo-Rubio argued that the story is often viewed unjustly as inconclusive.

He derives his interpretative approach from the fact that the descriptions of Gregor and his family environment in The Metamorphosis contradict each other.

Bermejo-Rubio emphasizes that Kafka ordered in that there should be no illustration of Gregor. Another reason why Kafka opposed such an illustration is that the reader should not be biased in any way before his reading process was getting under way.

That the descriptions are not compatible with each other is indicative of the fact that the opening statement is not to be trusted.

Volker Drüke believes that the crucial metamorphosis in the story is that of Grete. She is the character the title is directed at. Grete, by contrast, has matured as a result of the new family circumstances and assumed responsibility.

Kafka's sentences often deliver an unexpected impact just before the period — that being the finalizing meaning and focus. This is achieved from the construction of sentences in the original German, where the verbs of subordinate clauses are put at the end.

For example, in the opening sentence, it is the final word, verwandelt , that indicates transformation:. Als Gregor Samsa eines Morgens aus unruhigen Träumen erwachte, fand er sich in seinem Bett zu einem ungeheuren Ungeziefer verwandelt.

As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect-like creature. These constructions are not directly replicable in English, so it is up to the translator to provide the reader with the effect of the original text.

English translators have often sought to render the word Ungeziefer as "insect", but this is not strictly accurate. Kafka had no intention of labeling Gregor as any specific thing, but instead wanted to convey Gregor's disgust at his transformation.

The phrasing used by Joachim Neugroschel [16] is: However, in Kafka's letter to his publisher of 25 October , in which he discusses his concern about the cover illustration for the first edition, he uses the term Insekt , saying: It is not even to be seen from a distance.

Ungeziefer has sometimes been translated as " cockroach ", " dung beetle ", " beetle ", and other highly specific terms. The term "dung beetle" or Mistkäfer is, in fact, used by the cleaning lady near the end of the story, but it is not used in the narration: Vladimir Nabokov , who was a lepidopterist as well as a writer and literary critic, insisted that Gregor was not a cockroach, but a beetle with wings under his shell, and capable of flight.

Nabokov left a sketch annotated, "just over three feet long", on the opening page of his heavily corrected English teaching copy.

In his accompanying lecture notes, Nabokov discusses the type of insect Gregor has been transformed into, concluding that Gregor "is not, technically, a dung beetle.

He is merely a big beetle". In the movie "The Producers" Max Bialystock and Leo Bloom are searching for the worst play ever written in order to progress their scam.

Max reads from an unnamed play From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the literary work by Franz Kafka.

For the biological process, see Metamorphosis. For other uses, see Metamorphosis disambiguation. Short story Absurdist fiction Slipstream.

For other uses, see Gregor Samsa disambiguation. The Metamorphosis in popular culture. Die Kunst des Lesens: Meisterwerke der europäischen Literatur.

Transforming Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis Signs, Kafka konkret — Das Trauma ein Leben. Wiederholungsmotive im Werk als Grundlage einer psychologischen Deutung.

Die Jahre der Entscheidungen , p. Beck, , p. Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte , Volume 86, Issue 3 , pp.

The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. Retrieved 15 April New York, New York: Hemimetabolous insects include cockroaches, grasshoppers, dragonflies, and true bugs.

Phylogenetically, all insects in the Pterygota undergo a marked change in form, texture and physical appearance from immature stage to adult.

These insects either have hemimetabolous development, and undergo an incomplete or partial metamorphosis, or holometabolous development, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, including a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms.

A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of holometaboly from hemimetaboly, mostly centering on whether or not the intermediate hemimetabolous forms are homologous to pupal form of holometabolous forms.

More recently, [ when? According to research from , adult Manduca sexta is able to retain behavior learned as a caterpillar.

Many observations [ when? In typical amphibian development, eggs are laid in water and larvae are adapted to an aquatic lifestyle.

Frogs , toads , and newts all hatch from the eggs as larvae with external gills but it will take some time for the amphibians to interact outside with pulmonary respiration.

Afterwards, newt larvae start a predatory lifestyle, while tadpoles mostly scrape food off surfaces with their horny tooth ridges. Metamorphosis in amphibians is regulated by thyroxin concentration in the blood, which stimulates metamorphosis, and prolactin , which counteracts its effect.

Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues. Because most embryonic development is outside the parental body, development is subject to many adaptations due to specific ecological circumstances.

For this reason tadpoles can have horny ridges for teeth, whiskers, and fins. They also make use of the lateral line organ. After metamorphosis, these organs become redundant and will be resorbed by controlled cell death, called apoptosis.

The amount of adaptation to specific ecological circumstances is remarkable, with many discoveries still being made. With frogs and toads, the external gills of the newly hatched tadpole are covered with a gill sac after a few days, and lungs are quickly formed.

Front legs are formed under the gill sac, and hindlegs are visible a few days later. Following that there is usually a longer stage during which the tadpole lives off a vegetarian diet.

Rapid changes in the body can then be observed as the lifestyle of the frog changes completely. The animal develops a big jaw, and its gills disappear along with its gill sac.

Eyes and legs grow quickly, a tongue is formed, and all this is accompanied by associated changes in the neural networks development of stereoscopic vision, loss of the lateral line system, etc.

All this can happen in about a day, so it is truly a metamorphosis. It is not until a few days later that the tail is reabsorbed, due to the higher thyroxin concentrations required for tail resorption.

The Salamander development is highly diverse; some species go through a dramatic reorganization when transitioning from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adults, while others, such as the Axolotl , display paedomorphosis and never develop into terrestrial adults.

Within the genus Ambystoma , species have evolved to be paedomorphic several times, and paedomorphosis and complete development which can both occur in some species.

In newts, there is no true metamorphosis [ citation needed ] because newt larvae already feed as predators and continue doing so as adults.

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